①Short Speech


③Grammar and Vocabulary



Agree or disagree: Technology has made meaningful interpersonal connections more challenging.


I disagree. Technology has expanded our ability to connect with others in meaningful ways. It offers increased connectivity, diverse communication tools, access to communities, and bridges gaps in accessibility, fostering deeper relationships despite physical distances.

I agree. Technology has made meaningful interpersonal connections more challenging in some ways. Despite providing increased connectivity, it often leads to superficial interactions. Additionally, reliance on digital communication can hinder face-to-face interactions, impacting the depth of relationships. Furthermore, social media platforms can create a false sense of connection, replacing genuine human interaction with curated online personas. Overall, while technology offers convenience, it can also detract from the richness of authentic interpersonal connections.


Discuss the impact of technology on human relationships and social dynamics.


Technology has significantly impacted human relationships and social dynamics. Firstly, it has enhanced connectivity, allowing people to stay in touch regardless of distance. However, it also poses challenges. Overreliance on digital communication can weaken face-to-face interactions, affecting the depth of relationships. Social media platforms may create superficial connections, replacing genuine interactions with curated online personas. Moreover, technology can contribute to feelings of isolation and reduce the quality of communication skills. Thus, while technology offers convenience, its impact on human relationships is multifaceted, requiring careful navigation to maintain meaningful connections.






As the sun began to set, casting long shadows across the city streets, a sense of anticipation filled the air. People hurried along the sidewalks, eager to reach their destinations before nightfall. In the distance, the neon lights of the bustling metropolis beckoned like beacons, promising excitement and adventure.

Meanwhile, in a laboratory on the outskirts of town, scientists worked feverishly to inoculate the population against a deadly virus that threatened to detonate into a full-blown pandemic. Each vial of vaccine contained the potential to inject hope into the hearts of millions, and every syringe wielded by medical professionals was a weapon in the fight against the invisible enemy.

At the central command center, military officials prepared to dispatch troops to regions where unrest threatened to guzzle the fragile peace. They strategized meticulously, devising plans to deploy resources and personnel with precision and efficiency. Every decision made could nudge the balance of power in favor of stability or chaos.

In the digital realm, cybersecurity experts worked tirelessly to encrypt sensitive information and thwart cyberattacks from malicious hackers. The technology landscape continued to evolve at a rapid pace, presenting new challenges and opportunities for those tasked with safeguarding data and privacy.

Amidst the chaos, a breakthrough in a high-profile criminal case served to exonerate an innocent individual who had been wrongfully accused. The truth had erupted like a volcano, shattering the facade of deception and revealing the corrupt underbelly of the justice system.

Yet, even as the world grappled with these myriad challenges, there remained a glimmer of hope—a belief that humanity’s capacity to encompass compassion and resilience would ultimately prevail. Bound by the fetters of fate and circumstance, people continued to wriggle free and forge ahead, determined to shape a better future for generations to come.









beckon – ●●●
inoculate – ●●●
detonate – ●●●
inject – ●●●
dispatch – ●●●
guzzle – ●●●
deploy – ●●●
nudge – ●●●
encrypt – ●●●
evolve – ●●●
exonerate – ●●●
erupt – ●●●
encompass – ●●●
fetter – ●●●
wriggle – ●●●

fill X in on Y: ●●●
fade in: ●●●
firm up: ●●●
flesh out: ●●●
face the music: ●●●


She ●●●ed me over with a wave of her hand.

Doctors will ●●● children against measles.

The bomb is set to ●●● in five minutes.

The nurse will ●●● the medicine into your arm.

The company will ●●● a team to investigate the issue.

He ●●●d down his drink in one gulp.

The army will ●●● troops along the border.

He gently ●●●d his friend to get their attention during the lecture.

It’s important to ●●● your sensitive information online.

Technology continues to ●●● at a rapid pace.

The new evidence served to ●●● the defendant.

The volcano is expected to ●●● at any moment.

The report will ●●● all aspects of the project.

He felt ●●●ed by the constraints of his job.

The snake tried to ●●● free from the grasp of the handler.


I need to ●●● in my boss on the progress of the project.

The scene gradually ●●●s in as the sun rises.

We need to ●●● up the details of our plan before presenting it to the board.

The author ●●●ed out the characters in her novel with vivid descriptions.

After making a mistake, he knew he had to ●●● the music and apologize.




Imagine standing on a BLUFF, a high cliff overlooking the sea. You might need to bluff your way out if you’re afraid of heights!

Think of a pirate’s BROACH, which they use to open a barrel of rum. “Broach the barrel, matey!”

When you’re angry or stressed, you might CLENCH your fists tightly.

Imagine putting together a COMPILATION of your favorite songs into one playlist.

Picture a group of people trying to HEAVE a heavy object onto a truck. “Heave-ho, everyone!”

Visualize a carton of milk with the EXPIRATION date passed, now expired and no longer safe to drink.

Imagine a flower wilting and withering away, slowly PERISHing without water or sunlight.

Think of a baby chick HATCHing from its egg, breaking through the shell to enter the world.

Picture a group of thieves running through a house, tossing things around as they RANSACK for valuables.

Bears HIBERNATE during the winter months, sleeping deeply in their dens until spring.

Envision two competitors VIEing for the same trophy, each striving to outperform the other.

Think of your body as a METABOLIC factory, breaking down food into energy to fuel your activities.

Imagine trying to fix a leaky pipe with a WRENCH, twisting it tightly to stop the flow of water.

Picture a farmer REAPing the rewards of his harvest, gathering ripe crops from the fields.

Think of a sponge being SATURATED with water, completely soaked and unable to hold any more.


Beckon (手招き)
: 手招きするとき、手をベックン(beckon)という感じで動かす。誰かを呼び寄せるイメージ。

Inoculate (予防接種する)
: イノキュレート(inoculate)は、「イノチュエーション(inoculation)」とも聞こえる。予防接種を受けるとき、注射を受けるイメージ。

Detonate (爆発する)
: デトネイト(detonate)は「デトネーター(detonator)」とも聞こえる。爆発物の起爆装置をイメージ。

Inject (注射する)
: インジェクト(inject)は、注射器を使って薬を体内に注入するイメージ。

Dispatch (発送する)
: ディスパッチ(dispatch)は、急いで何かを送るというイメージ。急いで手紙を送る様子。

Guzzle (がぶ飲みする)
: グザル(guzzle)は、ゴクゴクと飲む音を表す。急いで飲み干すイメージ。

Deploy (展開する)
: デプロイ(deploy)は、軍隊が戦場に兵士や装備を展開するイメージ。

Nudge (軽く押す)
: ナッジ(nudge)は、軽く押して注意を促すイメージ。

Encrypt (暗号化する)
: エンクリプト(encrypt)は、データを保護するために暗号化するイメージ。

Evolve (進化する)
: イボルブ(evolve)は、進化する生物の形をイメージ。

Exonerate (無罪を証明する)
: イグゾネレート(exonerate)は、「エクスキューズ(excuse)」とも聞こえる。無実を証明する様子。

Erupt (噴火する)
: イラプト(erupt)は、火山が火を吹き出すイメージ。

Encompass (包括する)
: エンコンパス(encompass)は、全体を包み込むイメージ。

Fetter (拘束する)
: フェター(fetter)は、足首に鎖をつけて拘束するイメージ。

Wriggle (もじもじ動く)
: リグル(wriggle)は、ミミズがもじもじと動く様子をイメージ。

fill X in on Y: YにXの情報を伝える
「フィル・イン」は、何かを埋めるイメージ。例えば、穴を埋める。だから、「fill X in on Y」は、穴に情報を埋めるようにYにXの情報を伝えることを意味します。

fade in: を次第に明るくする

firm up: を確実なものにする

flesh out: に肉付けする

face the music: 自分の言動の報いを受ける


beckon (手招く)Beckon someone over (誰かを呼び寄せる)
Beckon for attention (注意を引くために手招きする)
inoculate (接種する)Inoculate against diseases (疾病に対する予防接種)
Inoculate a patient (患者に接種する)
detonate (爆発する)Detonate a bomb (爆弾を爆発させる)
Detonate explosives (爆薬を爆発させる)
inject (注射する)Inject medicine (薬を注射する)
Inject insulin (インスリンを注射する)
dispatch (発送する)Dispatch a package (荷物を発送する)
Dispatch an order (注文を発送する)
guzzle (がぶ飲みする)Guzzle down water (水をがぶ飲みする)
Guzzle beer (ビールをがぶ飲みする)
deploy (展開する)Deploy troops (兵士を展開する)
Deploy resources (資源を展開する)
nudge (軽く押す)Nudge someone awake (誰かを軽く押して起こす)
Nudge a friend to move (友達に軽く押して動くよう促す)
encrypt (暗号化する)Encrypt data (データを暗号化する)
Encrypt messages (メッセージを暗号化する)
evolve (進化する)Evolve over time (時間の経過とともに進化する)
Evolve into a new species (新しい種に進化する)
exonerate (無罪を証明する)Exonerate someone of a crime (誰かを犯罪の無実を証明する)
Exonerate from blame (責任から免除する)
erupt (噴火する)Volcano erupts (火山が噴火する)
Erupt in anger (怒りを爆発させる)
encompass (包括する)Encompass all possibilities (全ての可能性を包括する)
Encompass various topics (様々なトピックを包括する)
fetter (拘束する)Fetter someone’s movement (誰かの動きを拘束する)
Fetter freedom (自由を拘束する)
wriggle (もじもじ動く)Wriggle out of a tight spot (厳しい状況から逃げ出す)
Wriggle through a crowd (人混みをもじもじ動いて通り抜ける)





As the ship sailed into the vast expanse of the ocean, the captain decided to bluff his way past the treacherous reef. With a confident smile, he broached the topic of navigation with his crew, ensuring they were prepared for the challenge ahead. As the waves crashed against the hull, the crew clenched their fists in determination, ready to face whatever obstacles came their way.

Meanwhile, below deck, the ship’s navigator worked tirelessly to compile data from the charts and maps, plotting the safest course through the turbulent waters. With each swell of the sea, heave after heave, he guided the ship towards its destination.

But time was of the essence, for the ship’s provisions were set to expire soon, and the crew could not afford to perish at sea. With each passing day, they grew more anxious, fearing they would run out of food and water before reaching land.

Yet amidst the chaos, a plan began to hatch in the captain’s mind. He ordered the crew to ransack the cargo hold, searching for any hidden supplies that could sustain them through their journey. And when night fell, he instructed them to hibernate in shifts, conserving energy and resources until they reached safety.

As the days turned into weeks, the ship continued to vie with the elements, battling against fierce winds and relentless waves. But with each sunrise, the crew’s resolve strengthened, knowing that together, they could overcome any challenge.

And indeed, they did. As they finally reached the shores of a distant island, they realized that they had not only survived but thrived. Their bodies had metabolized the hardships of the journey, making them stronger and more resilient than ever before.

In the end, it was a wrenching experience, but one that had reaped rewards beyond their wildest dreams. And as they stepped onto solid ground, the salty air saturating their senses, they knew that they had achieved the impossible.










bluff – ●●●

broach – ●●●

clench – ●●●

compile – ●●●

heave – ●●●

expire – ●●●

perish – ●●●

hatch – ●●●

ransack – ●●●

hibernate – ●●●

vie – ●●●

metabolize – ●●●

wrench – ●●●

reap – ●●●

saturate – ●●●

fizze out: ●●●

flare up at: ●●●

flip out: ●●●

fend for oneself: ●●●

face off: ●●●


He tried to ●●● his way past the security guard by pretending to be a VIP.

She finally ●●●ed the subject of their relationship with him.

He ●●●ed his fists in frustration.

I need to ●●● all the data before the meeting.

The workers ●●●d the heavy boxes onto the truck.

My driver’s license is set to ●●● next month.

Many plants ●●● if they don’t get enough sunlight.

They ●●●ed a plan to escape from the prison.

Burglars ●●●ed the house looking for valuables.

Bears ●●● during the winter months.

The two companies are ●●●ing for market dominance.

Your body ●●●s food into energy.

He ●●●ed the door open with all his strength.

If you work hard, you will ●●● the rewards.

The heavy rain ●●●d the ground, causing flooding.


The party started with a lot of excitement but ●●●d out quickly.

He tends to ●●● up at the slightest provocation.

She ●●●ped out when she realized she had lost her wallet.

After moving to the city, he had to learn to ●●● for himself.

The two teams will ●●● off in the championship match next week.





Crunch (ぼりぼりかむ):
Mnemonic: Imagine a person chewing on crunchy snacks with a “boring” expression on their face, saying “ぼりぼりかむ” repeatedly.
Association: Crunching sounds like “boring” in Japanese.

Mnemonic: Picture someone claiming ownership of a treasure chest, proudly stating, “This chest is mine!”
Association: A claim is like making a statement of ownership.

Mnemonic: Imagine a person dawdling around a store, taking forever to decide which product to buy, causing frustration to everyone waiting behind them.
Association: Dawdle sounds like “drawl,” which implies speaking slowly or dragging things out.

Mnemonic: Picture someone sadly handing over their favorite toy to another person after losing a game, saying, “I forfeit.”
Association: Forfeit sounds like “for feet,” indicating giving something up.

Mnemonic: Imagine a doctor using a magnifying glass to examine a patient’s symptoms closely, saying confidently, “I diagnose you with the flu.”
Association: Diagnose sounds like “die in nose,” emphasizing the importance of identifying health issues.

Mnemonic: Picture someone pointing fingers at another person, saying, “You’re implicated in this crime!”
Association: Implicate sounds like “imply Kate,” suggesting someone’s involvement indirectly.

Mnemonic: Imagine trying to read a blurry book with smeared ink, struggling to make out the words.
Association: Blur sounds like “blurry,” indicating unclear vision or perception.

Mnemonic: Picture a greedy businessperson with a giant “mono” (monkey) holding all the bananas, not sharing them with others.
Association: Monopolize sounds like “mono” (monkey) and “police,” suggesting controlling everything like a dictator.

Mnemonic: Imagine a magician invoking a spell, waving a wand and chanting mysterious words to make something appear.
Association: Invoke sounds like “invoke,” implying calling upon supernatural forces or powers.

Mnemonic: Picture a masked burglar perpetrating a crime, sneaking into a house to steal valuables.
Association: Perpetrate sounds like “perpetual trait,” indicating repeatedly committing an action or behavior.

Mnemonic: Imagine someone nervously trying to speak, stuttering and stumbling over their words, saying, “S-sorry, I can’t speak clearly.”
Association: Stammer sounds like “stumble,” indicating difficulty in speaking fluently.

Mnemonic: Picture a smuggler hiding contraband goods inside a “smug” smile, trying to pass through customs undetected.
Association: Smuggle sounds like “smug,” implying sneaking something illegally with confidence.

Mnemonic: Picture two siblings squabbling over a toy, shouting and tugging at it, while their parents try to intervene.
Association: Squabble sounds like “squabble,” indicating a noisy argument or dispute.

Mnemonic: Imagine a group of people signing a treaty with a giant rat stamping its approval on the document, making it official.
Association: Ratify sounds like “ratify,” indicating the formal approval or confirmation of something.

Mnemonic: Picture someone digging a tunnel underneath a building’s foundation, weakening its support structure.
Association: Undermine sounds like “under mine,” suggesting weakening or sabotaging something from below.


Bluff (たわむれる)
連想法: ブラフは、ポーカープレイヤーが自信に満ちた笑顔で、勝ち手を持っているかのように見せかけている様子をイメージします。

Broach (提起する)
連想法: ブローチを使って話題を固定し、会話を始める様子をイメージします。

Clench (きゅっと握る)
連想法: 怒りや苛立ちで拳をきつく握る様子をイメージします。

Compile (まとめる)
連想法: 情報を整理し、きちんとまとめたファイルに書類をまとめる様子をイメージします。

Heave (押し上げる)
連想法: 努力して重い箱をトラックの荷台に押し上げる様子をイメージします。

Expire (期限切れになる)
連想法: 何かが期限切れであることを示す赤いマークのついたカレンダーをイメージします。

Perish (死ぬ)
連想法: 焼け付くような太陽の下でしおれる花が死んでいく様子をイメージします。

Hatch (ふ化する)
連想法: 卵からかわる赤ちゃんのひよこが、殻を破ってかえってくる様子をイメージします。

Ransack (略奪する)
連想法: 強盗が家を略奪し、貴重品を探し回る様子をイメージします。

Hibernate (冬眠する)
連想法: 冬眠中のクマが居心地の良い穴で眠っている様子をイメージします。

Vie (競う)
連想法: 2人の選手が金メダルを競い合い、ゴールに向かって首を競って走る様子をイメージします。

Metabolize (代謝する)
連想法: 食べ物がエネルギーに変換される体内での代謝過程を、矢印がプロセスを示したイメージで描きます。

Wrench (ひねる):
連想法: レンチを使ってボルトを締めたり緩めたりする様子をイメージします。

Reap (収穫する)
連想法: 農夫が鎌で熟した作物を刈り取り、豊作を収穫する様子をイメージします。

Saturate (飽和させる)

Flare up at (にむきになって怒る)
イメージ: 火事
連想: 火が急に大きくなり、人が怒り出す

Flip out (かっとなる)
イメージ: フリップスイッチ
連想: スイッチを強く押すと、急に反応して驚くように、人が急にかっとなる

Fend for oneself (自力で生きていく)
イメージ: 島に取り残される
連想: 自分で島で生きる方法を見つけなければならない状況

Face off (対決する)
イメージ: ボクシングのリング
連想: 二人のボクサーがリングの中央で向かい合い、対決する


Bluff (だまし取る, bluff する)Bluff a rival: ライバルをだます
Call someone’s bluff: 相手のだましを見破る
Broach (提起する, 始める)Broach a subject: 話題を提起する
Broach a new idea: 新しいアイデアを始める
Clench (握り締める, 歯を食いしばる)Clench one’s fists: 拳を握り締める
Clench one’s teeth: 歯を食いしばる
Compile (編集する, 収集する)Compile data: データを収集する
Compile a report: レポートを編集する
Heave (持ち上げる, 吐き出す)Heave a heavy object: 重い物を持ち上げる
Heave a sigh: ため息をつく
Expire (期限が切れる, 終了する)Expire a contract: 契約が期限切れになる
Insurance policy expires: 保険契約が期限切れになる
Perish (死ぬ, 滅びる)Perish in a fire: 火事で死ぬ
Civilization may perish: 文明が滅びるかもしれない
Hatch (かえる, 企てる)Hatch eggs: 卵をかえる
Hatch a plan: 計画を企てる
Ransack (略奪する, くまなく捜す)Ransack a house: 家を略奪する
Ransack through drawers: 引き出しをくまなく捜す
Hibernate (冬眠する, 休眠状態に入る)Hibernate during winter: 冬眠する
Computer hibernates: コンピューターが休眠状態に入る
Vie (競う, 競争する)Vie for attention: 注目を競う
Vie for the title: タイトルを競う
Metabolize (代謝する, 新陳代謝する)Metabolize food: 食物を代謝する
Metabolize drugs: 薬を代謝する
Wrench (ねじる, 強引に取り除く)Wrench a bolt: ボルトをねじる
Wrench something from someone: 誰かから何かを強引に取り除く
Reap (収穫する, 獲得する)Reap the benefits: 利益を収穫する
Reap what you sow: 蒔いた種を刈り取る
Saturate (飽和させる, じっくり染み込ませる)Saturate the market: 市場を飽和させる
Saturate a sponge: スポンジをじっくり染み込ませる



英検1級エクセレントコース:第十一週金曜日 ライティングその6



①Write an essay on the given TOPIC.
②Give three reasons to support your answer.
③Structure: introduction, main body, and conclusion
④Suggested length: 200-240 words


Is universal access to healthcare a fundamental human right? (Agree or Disagree)



Universal access to healthcare is a contentious topic that sparks debates worldwide. While some argue that it is a fundamental human right, others disagree. In this essay, I will argue that universal access to healthcare is indeed a fundamental human right.

Main Body:(3つ)

Basic Human Dignity: Access to healthcare is essential for preserving basic human dignity. Every individual deserves the right to live a healthy life, free from preventable diseases and ailments. Without access to healthcare, people may suffer needlessly and be deprived of their inherent dignity. Universal access to healthcare ensures that everyone, regardless of socioeconomic status, has the opportunity to receive essential medical services and treatments.

Promotion of Equality: Universal access to healthcare promotes equality within society. Without adequate healthcare, marginalized and disadvantaged populations are disproportionately affected, widening existing social inequalities. By ensuring that everyone has access to healthcare services, regardless of their income or social status, societies can work towards creating a more equitable and just society where everyone has the opportunity to lead a healthy life.

Public Health and Economic Benefits: Providing universal access to healthcare has significant public health and economic benefits. Access to preventive care and early intervention can help reduce the burden of disease and prevent the spread of illnesses. This, in turn, leads to lower healthcare costs in the long run, as treating diseases at an early stage is often more cost-effective than managing advanced illnesses. Additionally, a healthier population is more productive, leading to economic growth and stability.


In conclusion, universal access to healthcare is undeniably a fundamental human right. It upholds basic human dignity, promotes equality, and brings about significant public health and economic benefits. Ensuring that everyone has access to healthcare is not only morally right but also essential for creating healthier, more equitable societies.



①Basic Human Dignity
Universal access to healthcare ensures that everyone, regardless of socioeconomic status, has the opportunity to receive essential medical services and treatments.

②Promotion of Equality
By ensuring that everyone has access to healthcare services, regardless of their income or social status, societies can work towards creating a more equitable and just society where everyone has the opportunity to lead a healthy life.

③Public Health and Economic Benefits
Access to preventive care and early intervention can help reduce the burden of disease and prevent the spread of illnesses.






As I read through the dense pages of the ancient tome, the sound of the fire crackling in the hearth provided a comforting backdrop. I couldn’t help but crunch on a handful of roasted nuts, savoring their salty flavor. Suddenly, a thought claimed my attention, urging me to stop dawdling and focus on the task at hand. I knew that if I didn’t, I would forfeit the opportunity to uncover the secrets hidden within these cryptic passages.




crunch – ●●●
claim – ●●●
dawdle – ●●●
forfeit – ●●●
diagnose – ●●●
implicate – ●●●
blur – ●●●
monopolize – ●●●
invoke – ●●●
perpetrate – ●●●
stammer – ●●●
smuggle – ●●●
squabble – ●●●
ratify – ●●●
undermine – ●●●

flash back to: ●●●
fall through: ●●●
feud about: ●●●
fall back on: ●●●
fend off: ●●●


She ●●●ed on the crispy potato chips as she watched the movie.

He ●●●ed that the idea was originally his, but many doubted his assertion.

Stop ●●●ing and finish your homework already!

If you don’t follow the rules, you will ●●● your chance to participate.

The doctor was able to ●●● the illness quickly and start treatment.

The evidence seemed to ●●● him in the crime, but further investigation was needed.

The artist used soft brush strokes to ●●● the edges of the painting, creating a dreamlike effect.

The company tried to ●●● the market by buying out its competitors.

She ●●●d the spirits of her ancestors to guide her through the difficult times.

The criminals ●●●d the robbery under the cover of darkness.

He ●●●ed nervously when asked to give a presentation in front of the class.

●●●ing goods across borders is illegal and can result in severe consequences.

The siblings often ●●● over trivial matters, but they always make up quickly afterward.

The treaty was ●●●ed by all participating countries, solidifying their commitment to peace.

Continuous criticism can ●●● a person’s confidence and self-esteem.


Every time I see that old photo, I ●●● back to our trip to the beach last summer.

Their plans to expand the business ●●● through due to a lack of funding.

The two neighbors have been ●●●ing about the property line for years.

When all else fails, we can ●●● back on our emergency savings.

The goalkeeper managed to ●●● off the opponent’s powerful shot with a diving save.




Abscond (To leave hurriedly and secretly):

Mnemonic: Think of someone “absconding” by hopping on a “scoundrel” ship to escape.
Association: Abscond sounds like “ab-scound” which means to leave secretly like a scoundrel.

Abuse (To treat with cruelty or violence, especially regularly or repeatedly):

Mnemonic: Picture someone being verbally abused by having words “A” and “B” shouted at them.
Association: Abuse sounds like “A+” “B” use, but here it’s not a good thing.

Cajole (To persuade someone to do something by sustained coaxing or flattery):

Mnemonic: Imagine coaxing someone with a cage full of “jewels” to persuade them.
Association: Cajole sounds like “cage full”; imagine someone coaxing with a cage full of treasures.

Cease (To bring or come to an end):

Mnemonic: Picture someone shouting “Cease!” to make things stop.
Association: Cease sounds like “seize”; imagine someone seizing the moment to stop something.

Circulate (To move continuously or freely through a closed system or area):

Mnemonic: Think of blood “circling” around your body through your veins.
Association: Circulate sounds like “circle”; imagine something moving in circles around an area.

Dupe (To deceive or trick someone):

Mnemonic: Picture someone being duped by seeing double (two copies of themselves).
Association: Dupe sounds like “do a repeat”; imagine someone tricking you into repeating something.

Intrigue (To arouse the curiosity or interest of; fascinate):

Mnemonic: Think of being intrigued by the intricate details of an “intriguing” mystery.
Association: Intrigue sounds like “in-trick”; imagine something that tricks you into being interested.

Defraud (To illegally obtain money from someone by deception):

Mnemonic: Picture a “fraudulent” dealer trying to defraud someone by selling fake goods.
Association: Defraud sounds like “de-fraud”; imagine someone trying to fraudulently take something away from you.

Poach (To cook by simmering or boiling in a small amount of liquid):

Mnemonic: Imagine a chef poaching eggs in a pot of boiling water.
Association: Poach sounds like “pot of hot”; imagine something cooking slowly in a hot pot.

Juggle (To continuously toss and catch objects in the air, typically more than one):

Mnemonic: Picture a circus clown juggling balls while walking on a tightrope.
Association: Juggle sounds like “giggle”; imagine someone giggling while tossing objects in the air.

Probe (To inquire into or investigate thoroughly):

Mnemonic: Imagine a scientist probing the depths of the ocean with a long, thin rod.
Association: Probe sounds like “probe”; imagine someone poking around to investigate something.

Swindle (To cheat someone out of money or belongings):

Mnemonic: Picture a sly fox trying to swindle a chicken out of its eggs.
Association: Swindle sounds like “swindler”; imagine someone trying to deceive you for their own gain.

Penetrate (To pierce or pass through something):

Mnemonic: Think of a sharp arrow penetrating through a target.
Association: Penetrate sounds like “penetrate”; imagine something piercing through a surface.

Mutter (To speak quietly and indistinctly):

Mnemonic: Imagine an old man muttering to himself as he walks down the street.
Association: Mutter sounds like “mutter”; imagine someone murmuring softly under their breath.

Tamper (To interfere with something in order to cause damage or make unauthorized alterations):

Mnemonic: Picture someone tampering with a “tomb” by trying to open it.
Association: Tamper sounds like “tomb per”; imagine someone attempting to open a tomb improperly.


Crunch (ぼりぼりかむ): あなたが何か固いものをかむとき、その音が「ぼりぼり」という音を思い出してください。それが “Crunch”(かむ、もしくは音を立てる)です。

Claim: “Claim”は何かを主張することです。例えば、あなたが何かを所有する権利があると主張する場合、それは “Claim” です。

Dawdle: 「Dawdle」は時間を無駄にすることや、ぐずぐずすることを指します。たとえば、友達と出かける予定があるのに、ぐずぐずして出かけないというイメージを思い出してください。

Forfeit: “Forfeit”は何かを失うことを意味します。例えば、ゲームで勝つために何かを失うことや、賭けに負けて何かを失うことです。

Diagnose: “Diagnose”は病気や問題を診断することを指します。例えば、医者が患者の症状を調べて、何が問題であるかを診断することです。

Implicate: “Implicate”は関与することや、関連付けられることを指します。例えば、事件に関与している可能性がある人を「implicate(関与させる)」と言います。

Blur: “Blur”は物事がぼやけて見えることを指します。たとえば、速度が速すぎて周りの景色がぼやけて見えるようなイメージを思い出してください。

Monopolize: “Monopolize”は何かを独占することを指します。たとえば、ある企業が市場を独占することや、ある人が会話で話題を独占することです。

Invoke: “Invoke”は何かを引き起こすことや、呼び起こすことを指します。たとえば、ある法律を引き合いに出して法的権利を主張することです。

Perpetrate: “Perpetrate”は犯罪や違法行為を行うことを指します。例えば、犯罪を犯す人を「perpetrator(加害者)」と言います。

Stammer: “Stammer”は口ごもることや、つまることを指します。たとえば、緊張して話すときに言葉がつっかえる様子を思い出してください。

Smuggle: “Smuggle”は密輸することを指します。例えば、違法な商品を国境を越えて運ぶことです。

Squabble: “Squabble”は小さな口論や喧嘩を指します。たとえば、子供たちがおもちゃを取り合って口論する様子を思い出してください。

Ratify: “Ratify”は合意や契約を正式に承認することを指します。たとえば、国が条約を批准することです。

Undermine: “Undermine”は何かを弱めることや、崩すことを指します。たとえば、信頼を裏切ることや、計画を台無しにすることです。


crunch (ぼりぼりかむ)crunch numbers: 数字をひとつひとつ計算する
crunch time: 緊急の期限
crunch on a carrot: にんじんをぼりぼりかむ
claim (主張する)Claim responsibility for something: 何かに責任を主張する
Claim damages: 損害賠償を請求する
dawdle (ぐずぐずする)dawdle around: ぐずぐずする
dawdle along: のろのろ進む
dawdle over lunch: 昼食をぐずぐずと食べる
forfeit (失う)forfeit a game: 試合に負ける
forfeit a deposit: 保証金を没収される
forfeit one’s rights: 権利を放棄する
diagnose (診断する)diagnose a problem: 問題を診断する
diagnose an illness: 病気を診断する
diagnose a fault: 不具合を診断する
implicate (関与させる)implicate someone in a crime: 人を犯罪に関与させる
implicate oneself: 自分自身を巻き込む
implicate evidence: 証拠を関連づける
blur (ぼやける)blur the lines: 境界線をぼやけさせる
blur the image: 画像をぼやけさせる
blur the distinction: 区別をぼやけさせる
monopolize (独占する)monopolize the market: 市場を独占する
monopolize someone’s time: 人の時間を独占する
monopolize the conversation: 会話を独占する
invoke (引き出す)invoke a response: 反応を引き出す
invoke a law: 法律を引き出す
invoke a memory: 記憶を呼び起こす
perpetrate (犯す)perpetrate a crime: 犯罪を犯す
perpetrate an act: 行為を犯す
perpetrate violence: 暴力を犯す
stammer (どもる)stammer out an apology: 言い訳をどもって言う
stammer with nerves: 神経質にどもる
stammer in fear: 恐れてどもる
smuggle (密輸する)smuggle drugs: 麻薬を密輸する
smuggle contraband: 密輸品を運ぶ
smuggle goods: 商品を密輸する
squabble (口論する)squabble over money: 金銭問題で口論する
squabble with siblings: 兄弟姉妹と口論する
squabble about politics: 政治問題で口論する
ratify (批准する)ratify a treaty: 条約を批准する
ratify an agreement: 合意を批准する
ratify a decision: 決定を批准する
undermine (揺るがす)undermine confidence: 信頼を揺るがす
undermine authority: 権威を揺るがす
undermine efforts: 努力を揺るがす





As the night deepened, a sense of foreboding enveloped the desolate village. Shadows danced eerily in the moonlight, and whispers of ancient spirits seemed to abscond through the narrow alleyways. The villagers, weary from years of abuse by corrupt officials, prayed for relief. Little did they know, a stranger would soon arrive, promising change through cunning persuasion and elaborate schemes. With honeyed words, he sought to cajole the disillusioned populace, urging them not to cease their resistance but to circulate tales of hope and rebellion. Yet behind his charming facade lay a darker purpose – to dupe the vulnerable into schemes of his own making.




abscond – ●●●

abuse – ●●●

cajole – ●●●

cease – ●●●

circulate – ●●●

dupe – ●●●

intrigue – ●●●

defraud – ●●●

poach – ●●●

juggle – ●●●

probe – ●●●

swindle – ●●●

penetrate – ●●●

mutter – ●●●

tamper – ●●●

ferret out: ●●●

factor in: ●●●

freeze up: ●●●

foreclose on: ●●●

fall flat: ●●●


The thief ●●●ed with the jewels before the authorities arrived.

The organization was accused of ●●●ing its power.

She tried to ●●● her friend into joining her on the adventure.

The rain finally ●●●d, and the sun emerged from behind the clouds.

Rumors began to ●●● about the CEO’s resignation.

He was ●●●d into investing in a fraudulent scheme.

The mysterious stranger ●●●d the townspeople.

The company was found guilty of ●●●ing its customers.

The park ranger warned against ●●●ing wild animals from the protected reserve.

She had to ●●● her job, family, and social life.

The detectives ●●●d into the suspicious activities of the company.

He tried to ●●● unsuspecting tourists with fake souvenirs.

The spy managed to ●●● deep into enemy territory without being detected.

He ●●●ed under his breath as he walked away from the argument.

Someone had ●●●ed with the evidence, making it unreliable in court.


The detective was determined to ●●● the truth behind the mysterious disappearance.

When planning the budget, be sure to ●●● unexpected expenses.

In stressful situations, some people tend to ●●● and find it hard to speak.

The bank threatened to ●●● the house if the mortgage payments were not made.

The comedian’s jokes ●●●, and the audience sat in silence.