The library was a quiet haven where scholars immersed themselves in ancient texts and rare manuscripts. Each book came with detailed annotations, providing insights into the thoughts and contexts of the original authors. In one corner, a historian was examining documents from the 18th century, hoping to uncover evidence of contraband trade along the coast. Nearby, an archivist was engaged in collation, carefully comparing different versions of a medieval manuscript.

In another part of the library, a small group had gathered to offer their condolences to a colleague who had recently lost a loved one. They sat together in somber reflection, sharing stories and memories.

Meanwhile, in the administrative office, staff were dealing with a significant backlog of requests for book loans and research assistance. This was a recurring issue, exacerbated by the library’s limited resources.

At the same time, a ceremony was taking place in the main hall to celebrate the naturalization of new citizens. The hall was filled with joy and hope as people from diverse backgrounds received their certificates. Among them was a young couple, who had just entered the infancy of their journey in a new country. They were looking forward to the future and the opportunities it held.

In another room, a debate was underway about the library’s liability in case of lost or damaged books. The legal team was reviewing the terms of their insurance policy, ensuring that they were adequately covered.

Outside, in the garden, a wedding was being prepared. Matrimony was a common sight in this picturesque setting, with couples choosing it as the perfect place to start their lineage. The bride and groom were excited and slightly nervous, anticipating the start of their life together.

Inside the building, a writer was grappling with an accusation of libel in his latest book. He was consulting with his editor, ensuring that all the claims were substantiated to avoid legal repercussions.

The library also maintained a strict quota on the number of books each member could borrow at one time, a policy that was necessary to manage the limited supply. However, frequent patrons enjoyed certain perks, like extended loan periods and access to exclusive events.

In the administrative wing, a discussion was ongoing about the retirement of the head warden. He had served the library faithfully for decades, and his spouse was there to support him as he prepared to hand over the reins to a successor.












annotation (●●●)
contraband (●●●)
collation (●●●)
condolence (●●●)
backlog (●●●)
infancy (●●●)
matrimony (●●●)
naturalization (●●●)
libel (●●●)
lineage (●●●)
liability (●●●)
quota (●●●)
perk (●●●)
spouse (●●●)
warden (●●●)
nose around: ●●●
nose out: ●●●
narrow down: ●●●
nail down: ●●●
nod off: ●●●
nibble at: ●●●


The manuscript was filled with detailed ●●●s that explained the context of the text.

The customs officers seized a large amount of ●●● hidden in the cargo.

The ●●● of ancient manuscripts is a meticulous process that requires great attention to detail.

We offered our deepest ●●●s to the family during their time of loss.

The company faced a significant ●●● of orders due to the recent supply chain disruptions.

The project is still in its ●●●, and there is much work to be done.

They decided to enter into ●●● after dating for five years.

The ceremony marked the ●●● of several new citizens from different countries.

The journalist was sued for ●●● after publishing false information about the politician.

He was proud of his ●●●, tracing his family history back to the medieval nobility.

The company must ensure it has sufficient ●●● coverage to protect against potential lawsuits.

The government set a new ●●● on the number of immigrants allowed to enter the country each year.

One of the ●●●s of working at this company is the flexible work hours.

Employees are allowed to bring their ●●●s to the company’s annual picnic.

The ●●● of the prison implemented new policies to improve inmate rehabilitation.


She decided to ●●● around the old house, looking for any hidden treasures.

The team managed to ●●● out their rivals in the final minutes of the game.

We need to ●●● down the list of candidates for the job interview.

Let’s ●●● down the details of the agreement before we sign anything.

He ●●●ded off during the lecture because he was so tired.

The mouse ●●●d at the piece of cheese, taking small bites.





Mnemonic: “Bench” + “Mark” – Imagine a bench with a mark on it that shows the highest point someone reached.
Association: Think of a school bench with a mark showing the highest student’s height.
Contextual Usage: “The company’s sales figures set a new benchmark for success in the industry.”


Mnemonic: “Benefit” + “Receiver” – Someone who receives benefits.
Association: Imagine a person with a basket receiving benefits.
Contextual Usage: “The scholarship fund named her as the primary beneficiary.”


Mnemonic: “Big” + “Got” – A person with a big (strong) opinion that got stuck in one place.
Association: Picture someone holding a huge “opinion” sign, not letting anyone else speak.
Contextual Usage: “His remarks revealed him to be a bigot who couldn’t tolerate differing views.”


Mnemonic: “Debt” + “Owner” – Someone who owns (owes) a debt.
Association: Imagine a person with a “Debt” tag hanging from their shoulder.
Contextual Usage: “The debtor worked hard to pay off the money he owed.”


Mnemonic: “Ladder” – Think of climbing the career ladder.
Association: Picture a ladder with each step representing a higher level.
Contextual Usage: “She aspired to reach the upper echelon of the corporate hierarchy.”


Mnemonic: “Foot” + “Age” – Think of feet moving over time, captured in video.
Association: Imagine a filmstrip with footprints on it.
Contextual Usage: “The security footage showed the suspect entering the building.”


Mnemonic: “Gag” + “Jet” – A playful (gag) device that moves like a jet.
Association: Think of a quirky device that makes you laugh because it’s so clever.
Contextual Usage: “He loves collecting the latest tech gadgets.”


Mnemonic: “Glitch” sounds like “Hitch” – A small hitch or problem.
Association: Imagine a computer screen with a tiny “hitch” or flicker.
Contextual Usage: “The video game had a glitch that caused it to freeze.”


Mnemonic: “Hyper” – Think of being overly excited or hyper about something.
Association: Picture a crowd jumping and cheering in excitement.
Contextual Usage: “The hype surrounding the new movie was unbelievable.”


Mnemonic: “Integrate” + “Action” – The action of integrating.
Association: Think of pieces of a puzzle coming together to form a complete picture.
Contextual Usage: “The integration of new technology improved efficiency.”

Mnemonic: “Middle” + “Operator” – Someone who operates in the middle to resolve issues.
Association: Picture someone standing between two people, helping them shake hands.
Contextual Usage: “The mediator helped the two parties reach an agreement.”

Mnemonic: “Property” + “Owner” – The owner of a property or business.
Association: Imagine someone holding a key with a tag that says “My Property.”
Contextual Usage: “The proprietor of the shop greeted every customer warmly.”

Mnemonic: “Speculate” + “Action” – The action of guessing or hypothesizing.
Association: Picture someone looking through binoculars, trying to guess what’s ahead.
Contextual Usage: “There was much speculation about the company’s future plans.”

Mnemonic: “Out” + “Cast” – Someone cast out or excluded from a group.
Association: Think of someone standing alone outside a circle of people.
Contextual Usage: “He felt like an outcast at his new school.”

Mnemonic: “Up” + “Start” – Someone who starts rising up quickly.
Association: Imagine a young plant sprouting up rapidly.
Contextual Usage: “The upstart company quickly gained a lot of market attention.”



連想法: 「注射」の「注」を使って、本に「注」を入れるイメージ。


連想法: 「コントラバンド」を「コントラバン」と覚え、バンドが密輸品を使って密かに演奏するイメージ。


連想法: 「コラージュ」を思い浮かべて、複数の要素を照合して一つにまとめるイメージ。


連想法: 「コンドル」が空を飛んで弔いの意を表しているイメージ。


連想法: 「バック」と「ログ」を組み合わせて、リュックサックに未処理の仕事が詰まっているイメージ。


連想法: 「インファンシー」と「インファント(乳児)」を関連付けて覚えます。


連想法: 「マトリックス」を思い浮かべ、結婚が人生の重要な行事(マトリックス)であるイメージ。


連想法: 「ナチュラル」を思い浮かべて、新しい国で自然に馴染むイメージ。


連想法: 「ライベル」と覚え、ライオンが名誉を傷つけるような噂を広めるイメージ。


連想法: 「ライン(線)」を思い浮かべ、家系図の線が続くイメージ。


連想法: 「ライアビリティ」を「ライヤー(嘘つき)」と関連付けて、嘘つきが負債を抱えるイメージ。


連想法: 「クォーターバック」を思い浮かべて、ゲームで各チームに割り当てられる役割のイメージ。


連想法: 「パーク」を思い浮かべて、遊園地での特典や優待のイメージ。


連想法: 「スパウス」を「スペース」と関連付けて、生活空間を共有する人のイメージ。


連想法: 「ウォーデン」を「ガーディアン(守護者)」と関連付けて、監視や保護をする人のイメージ。


Annotation(注釈)Add an annotation (注釈を加える)
Margin annotation (余白の注釈)
Contraband(密輸品)Seize contraband (密輸品を押収する)
Contraband goods (密輸品)
Collation(照合)Data collation (データの照合)
Document collation (文書の照合)
Condolence(弔意)Offer condolences (弔意を表す)
Send condolences (弔意を送る)
Backlog(未処理の仕事)Clear the backlog (未処理の仕事を片付ける)
Backlog of orders (注文の未処理)
Infancy(幼少期)In its infancy (初期段階に)
Infancy stage (幼少期段階)
Matrimony(結婚)Enter into matrimony (結婚する)
Holy matrimony (神聖な結婚)
Naturalization(帰化)Apply for naturalization (帰化を申請する)
Grant naturalization (帰化を認める)
Libel(名誉毀損)Sue for libel (名誉毀損で訴える)
Libel case (名誉毀損事件)
Lineage(血統)Royal lineage (王家の血統)
Trace lineage (血統をたどる)
Liability(負債)Limited liability (有限責任)
Assume liability (負債を引き受ける)
Quota(割当)Meet a quota (割当を満たす)
Quota system (割当制度)
Perk(特典)Employee perks (従業員特典)
Perk of the job (仕事の特典)
Spouse(配偶者)Spouse support (配偶者の支援)
Surviving spouse (残された配偶者)
Warden(監視員)Prison warden (刑務所の監視員)
Warden duties (監視員の職務)





In a bustling city, there lived an upstart named John, who was a proprietor of a small gadget shop. Despite being an outcast in his community due to his unconventional ideas, John was determined to succeed. He believed that every glitch in life was an opportunity for growth. His shop, filled with innovative gadgets, became a benchmark for quality in the local market.

One day, a mediator approached John with a proposal to expand his business through integration with a larger tech company. This company, known for its cutting-edge technology, saw potential in John’s gadgets. The mediator explained that John’s shop could benefit immensely from this partnership, as the tech company had significant footage of their innovative processes and wide-ranging influence.

However, there were also risks involved. John had heard speculation about the company’s financial stability and was wary of becoming a debtor if things went south. He decided to take his time to make a well-informed decision.

Meanwhile, in the upper echelons of the city’s business world, a bigot was spreading false hype about John’s shop, claiming it was just a small-time operation with no real future. Despite this, John’s loyal customers stood by him, recognizing the true value of his work.

Among his customers was a beneficiary of John’s gadgets, a young student who used them to excel in her studies. This student’s success story began to spread, countering the negative hype and proving John’s detractors wrong.

Ultimately, John’s shop thrived, and he realized that being an upstart with innovative ideas could transform him from an outcast into a respected figure in the community. The integration with the tech company eventually took place, and John’s shop became even more successful, turning every speculation into proof of his hard-earned success.









Benchmark (●●●)

Beneficiary (●●●)

Bigot (●●●)

Debtor (●●●)

Echelon (●●●)

Footage (●●●)

Gadget (●●●)

Glitch (●●●)

Hype (●●●)

Integration (●●●)

Mediator (●●●)

Proprietor (●●●)

Speculation (●●●)

Outcast (●●●)

Upstart (●●●)

mull over: ●●●

measure up to: ●●●

make a fluff: ●●●

mark up: ●●●


The new software set a ●●● for all future developments.

She was the sole ●●● of her grandfather’s estate.

The ●●● refused to accept people from different cultures.

The ●●● struggled to repay his loans.

He reached the upper ●●● of the company through hard work.

The surveillance ●●● helped identify the thief.

This kitchen ●●● makes cooking much easier.

A small ●●● in the system caused a major delay.

The new product didn’t live up to the ●●●.

The ●●● of the new system was seamless.

The ●●● helped the two parties reach an agreement.

The ●●● welcomed the guests personally.

There is a lot of ●●● about the company’s future.

He felt like an ●●● in his new school.

The ●●● quickly made a name for himself in the tech industry.


She spent the weekend ●●●ing over her future career options.

The film didn’t ●●● up to the high standards set by its predecessor.

He made a ●●● while reading the script and had to start over.

Due to increased demand, the company decided to ●●● up the price of their popular gadget.






Mnemonic Device: Imagine a ladder labeled “Ascension” reaching up to the sky.
Association: Think of ascending stairs.
Contextual Usage: “The ascension of the hot air balloon captivated everyone.”


Mnemonic Device: Picture a pyramid with the word “Apex” at the very top.
Association: The tip of a mountain.
Contextual Usage: “She reached the apex of her career after many years of hard work.”


Mnemonic Device: Imagine Indiana Jones with a sign that says “Archaeologist”.
Association: Think of digging up ancient artifacts.
Contextual Usage: “The archaeologist discovered a new pharaoh’s tomb in Egypt.”


Mnemonic Device: Picture a crowd going crazy over the latest tech gadget.
Association: A sudden frenzy or mania.
Contextual Usage: “The new dance move became a nationwide craze.”


Mnemonic Device: Visualize a consignment shop with tags that say “Consignment”.
Association: Think of items sent to a store to be sold.
Contextual Usage: “She brought her old clothes to the consignment shop.”


Mnemonic Device: Picture a word with a halo or dark cloud above it to show positive or negative connotations.
Association: The hidden meaning behind a word.
Contextual Usage: “The word ‘home’ has a warm connotation for most people.”


Mnemonic Device: Imagine a fake $100 bill with “Counterfeiter” stamped on it.
Association: Think of someone making fake money or items.
Contextual Usage: “The counterfeiter was arrested for producing fake currency.”


Mnemonic Device: Picture a conveyor belt labeled “Conveyance”.
Association: The act of transporting something.
Contextual Usage: “The conveyance of goods was delayed due to the storm.”


Mnemonic Device: Visualize a huge company with various logos under one big umbrella labeled “Conglomerate”.
Association: A large corporation made up of smaller companies.
Contextual Usage: “The media conglomerate owns several TV networks and newspapers.”


Mnemonic Device: Imagine a brick wall labeled “Durability” that withstands a hurricane.
Association: Think of something that lasts a long time.
Contextual Usage: “The durability of the new phone case impressed all the customers.”


Mnemonic Device: Picture a flashy fashion trend labeled “Fad” that quickly fades away.
Association: A temporary trend.
Contextual Usage: “The pet rock was a popular fad in the 1970s.”


Mnemonic Device: Visualize a tea bag in hot water with the label “Infusion”.
Association: The act of mixing or soaking something.
Contextual Usage: “The chef added an infusion of herbs to the dish.”


Mnemonic Device: Imagine a straw labeled “Intake” sucking up liquid.
Association: The amount of something taken in.
Contextual Usage: “Monitor your daily intake of vitamins and minerals.”


Mnemonic Device: Picture a branch growing from a tree with a label “Offshoot”.
Association: A secondary or new branch or development.
Contextual Usage: “The new company is an offshoot of a large corporation.”


Mnemonic Device: Visualize a star at the highest point in the sky with “Zenith” written next to it.
Association: The highest point.
Contextual Usage: “The singer reached the zenith of her popularity in the 1990s.”


Benchmark (ベンチマーク)

連想: 公園のベンチに「基準」と書かれている様子を思い浮かべる。
説明: ベンチ(bench)を思い浮かべ、そこに座って基準(mark)を設定している姿を想像すると、ベンチマークが基準を意味することが記憶に残りやすくなります。

Beneficiary (受益者)

連想: 大きなプレゼントを受け取っている人の上に「Beneficiary」のラベルが付いている。
説明: ベネフィット(benefit)の受け取り手(receiver)をイメージすると、受益者を意味することがわかります。

Bigot (偏見を持つ人)

連想: 大きなゴート(ヤギ)に偏見を持つ人がいる様子を思い浮かべる。
説明: “Big”(大きい)と “goat”(ヤギ)を組み合わせて、偏見を持つ人がヤギに対して偏見を持つイメージを連想します。

Debtor (借金をしている人)

連想: 借金を抱えた人が「Debt」の大きなボールを引きずっている様子。
説明: デット(Debt)を引きずる人(debtor)をイメージすると、借金をしている人という意味がわかります。

Echelon (階層)

連想: 階段(echelon)を上っていく人々の列を思い浮かべる。
説明: 階層(階段)を連想すると、エシュロンが組織や社会の階層を指すことが理解できます。

Footage (映像)

連想: 足元(foot)の映像をカメラで撮影している様子。
説明: 足(foot)と映像(footage)を連想することで、映像や記録を指すことがわかります。

Gadget (ガジェット)

連想: ガジェットを手にしたガジェット博士のイメージ。
説明: ガジェット博士(Inspector Gadget)を思い浮かべることで、小型の便利な機械を意味することがわかります。

Glitch (故障)

連想: 機械がグリッチ(glitch)と音を立てて故障する様子。
説明: 機械の故障音を連想することで、グリッチが故障や不具合を指すことがわかります。

Hype (誇大宣伝)

連想: 巨大なメガホンで「Hype」と叫んでいる広告マン。
説明: 大きな音で叫ぶ(hype)様子を連想することで、誇大宣伝や煽りを意味することが理解できます。

Integration (統合)

連想: パズルのピースを一緒に統合(integration)している様子。
説明: パズルの統合を思い浮かべることで、異なるものを一つにまとめる意味が理解しやすくなります。

Mediator (仲介者)

連想: メディエーターが対立する2人の間に立って仲介している様子。
説明: 真ん中(medi)に立つ人(mediator)を思い浮かべることで、仲介者を意味することがわかります。

Proprietor (所有者)

連想: 自分の店の前に立つプロプライエター(proprietor)を思い浮かべる。
説明: 店(property)の前に立つ所有者(proprietor)を連想すると、所有者を意味することが理解できます。

Speculation (推測)

連想: 水晶玉を見て未来を推測している占い師の姿。
説明: 水晶玉を使って推測(speculate)する占い師を思い浮かべることで、推測や投機を意味することがわかります。

Outcast (追放者)

連想: グループから追い出されて外にいる人(outcast)の様子。
説明: グループから外に(out)追い出された人(cast)を連想すると、追放者を意味することが理解できます。

Upstart (成り上がり者)

連想: 一気にスタート(start)を切って上に上がる人(upstart)の姿。
説明: 上(up)に急上昇する(start)人を連想することで、成り上がり者を意味することがわかります。

Mull over (を熟考する)

連想: マグカップ(mug)に入ったホットワイン(mulled wine)を飲みながら、何かをじっくり考えている様子を思い浮かべる。
説明: 「mull」を「mulled wine(ホットワイン)」に関連付け、ホットワインを飲みながら熟考する様子を想像すると、「mull over」が「じっくり考える」という意味を持つことが記憶しやすくなります。

Measure up to (に達する)

連想: 物差し(ruler)を使って何かを測って、その基準(up to)に達するか確認している様子を思い浮かべる。
説明: 「measure」を「測る」という行為に関連付け、基準に達するかどうかを確認する場面を想像すると、「measure up to」が「基準に達する」という意味を持つことが理解しやすくなります。

Make a fluff (いい間違いをする)

連想: 綿(fluff)を口に詰め込んで話しているときに、言葉を噛んでしまう様子を思い浮かべる。
説明: 綿(fluff)を詰め込んで話すことで言葉が詰まりやすくなる状況を連想することで、「make a fluff」が「いい間違いをする」という意味を持つことが記憶しやすくなります。

Mark up (を値上げする)

連想: 価格表にペンで「up」と書き込み、値段を上げている様子を思い浮かべる。
説明: 「mark」を「記す」という行為に関連付け、価格表に「up」と書き込む場面を想像すると、「mark up」が「値上げする」という意味を持つことが理解しやすくなります。


Benchmark (ベンチマーク)Performance benchmark (パフォーマンスのベンチマーク)
Industry benchmark (業界のベンチマーク)
Benchmark test (ベンチマークテスト)
Beneficiary (受益者)Primary beneficiary (主要受益者)
Named beneficiary (指名された受益者)
Beneficiary designation (受益者指定)
Bigot (偏見を持つ人)Religious bigot (宗教的偏見を持つ人)
Racial bigot (人種的偏見を持つ人)
Narrow-minded bigot (偏狭な偏見を持つ人)
Debtor (借金をしている人)Debtor nation (債務国)
Debtor’s prison (債務者監獄)
Insolvent debtor (支払不能の債務者)
Echelon (階層)Upper echelon (上層)
Lower echelon (下層)
Top echelon (トップ階層)
Footage (映像)Raw footage (未編集の映像)
Archival footage (アーカイブ映像)
Surveillance footage (監視映像)
Gadget (ガジェット)Electronic gadget (電子ガジェット)
Latest gadget (最新のガジェット)
Kitchen gadget (キッチンガジェット)
Glitch (故障)Technical glitch (技術的な故障)
Software glitch (ソフトウェアの不具合)
Minor glitch (小さな故障)
Hype (誇大宣伝)Media hype (メディアの誇大宣伝)
Marketing hype (マーケティングの誇大宣伝)
Hype machine (誇大宣伝機構)
Integration (統合)System integration (システム統合)
Racial integration (人種統合)
Vertical integration (垂直統合)
Mediator (仲介者)Neutral mediator (中立な仲介者)
Professional mediator (プロの仲介者)
Mediator role (仲介者の役割)
Proprietor (所有者)Sole proprietor (唯一の所有者)
Property proprietor (物件の所有者)
Proprietor rights (所有者の権利)
Speculation (推測)Market speculation (市場の投機)
Wild speculation (根拠のない推測)
Speculation about (~についての推測)
Outcast (追放者)Social outcast (社会的追放者)
Political outcast (政治的追放者)
Outcast status (追放者の地位)
Upstart (成り上がり者)Young upstart (若い成り上がり者)
Upstart company (成り上がり企業)
Arrogant upstart (傲慢な成り上がり者)



英検1級エクセレントコース:第二十一週金曜日 ライティングその11



①Write an essay on the given TOPIC.
②Give three reasons to support your answer.
③Structure: introduction, main body, and conclusion
④Suggested length: 200-240 words


Should nations prioritize domestic issues over international cooperation in their policymaking? (Agree or Disagree)



In the realm of policymaking, the debate on whether nations should prioritize domestic issues over international cooperation is a critical one. I firmly believe that nations should indeed prioritize domestic issues. This stance is supported by three key reasons: the direct impact on citizens’ well-being, the necessity of maintaining national stability, and the ability to better allocate limited resources.

Main Body:(3つ)

Firstly, prioritizing domestic issues ensures that a government’s primary responsibility to its citizens is fulfilled. Issues such as healthcare, education, and infrastructure have immediate and tangible effects on people’s daily lives. By focusing on these areas, governments can directly improve the quality of life for their citizens, fostering a more prosperous and healthy society.

Secondly, national stability is a prerequisite for effective international cooperation. A nation struggling with internal turmoil, economic instability, or social unrest is less likely to participate constructively in global initiatives. By addressing and resolving domestic issues first, countries can build a solid foundation that supports more meaningful and sustained international engagement.

Lastly, resources are finite, and prioritizing domestic concerns allows for a more efficient and effective allocation of these resources. Governments have limited budgets and must make difficult choices about where to invest their money and efforts. By focusing on domestic priorities, they can ensure that taxpayer funds are used in ways that yield the most immediate and substantial benefits for the population.


In conclusion, while international cooperation is undeniably important, prioritizing domestic issues in policymaking is essential for ensuring the well-being of citizens, maintaining national stability, and optimizing resource allocation. This approach allows nations to build a stronger foundation from which they can engage more effectively on the global stage.



①Direct Impact on Citizens’ Well-being

Issues such as healthcare, education, and infrastructure have immediate and tangible effects on people’s daily lives.

②Necessity of Maintaining National Stability

By addressing and resolving domestic issues first, countries can build a solid foundation that supports more meaningful and sustained international engagement.

③Efficient Allocation of Limited Resources

Resources are finite, and prioritizing domestic concerns allows for a more efficient and effective allocation of these resources.






In the modern world, the ascension of technology has reached its apex. An archaeologist might study ancient civilizations, but today we also witness the craze for the latest gadgets. Companies often send their products on consignment to different markets, where the connotation of ‘new’ is always positive. However, there are counterfeiters who try to deceive customers. Conveyance methods have also evolved, now involving drones and automated systems.

Large corporations, known as conglomerates, dominate the industry due to their financial durability. Meanwhile, some products become a fad, only to disappear quickly. Yet, these trends often lead to an infusion of new ideas. The intake of information has increased exponentially, with every offshoot of technology contributing to this growth. At its zenith, the digital age promises endless possibilities.





Ascension (●●●)
Apex (●●●)
Archaeologist (●●●)
Craze (●●●)
Consignment (●●●)
Connotation (●●●)
Counterfeiter (●●●)
Conveyance (●●●)
Conglomerate (●●●)
Durability (●●●)
Fad (●●●)
Infusion (●●●)
Intake (●●●)
Offshoot (●●●)
Zenith (●●●)
Mill about: ●●●
Mark down: ●●●
Make a killing: ●●●
Make off with: ●●●


The company’s ●●● to the top of the market was rapid.

She reached the ●●● of her career at a young age.

The ●●● discovered ancient artifacts in the desert.

The new phone became a ●●● among teenagers.

The store received a ●●● of clothes for the spring collection.

The word “home” has a warm ●●● for many people.

The ●●● was arrested for producing fake currency.

The ●●● of goods has become faster with new technology.

The ●●● owns businesses in various industries.

The ●●● of this material makes it ideal for construction.

The fashion trend was just a ●●● that faded away quickly.

The ●●● of new ideas revitalized the company.

His daily ●●● of vitamins ensures he stays healthy.

The new software is an ●●● of the original program.

The artist’s work reached its ●●● in the late 20th century.


Shoppers began to ●●● about the store when the sale started.

The store decided to ●●● down all winter clothing by 50%.

She made a ●●● by investing in the right stocks.

The thief ●●● off with the expensive jewelry from the display.




Audacity (noun): Boldness or daring.

Mnemonic: “Aud” in “audacity” sounds like “audience.” Imagine a performer who has the boldness to stage-dive into the audience.
Context: “His audacity to challenge the status quo inspired many.”

Affinity (noun): A natural liking for something.

Mnemonic: Think of “affinity” as “a fin tea.” Imagine a dolphin (with fins) having a natural liking for tea.
Context: “She has an affinity for classical music.”

Allegory (noun): A story with a hidden meaning.

Mnemonic: “Allegory” sounds like “all leg ory.” Picture a story where every leg represents a different moral.
Context: “The novel is an allegory for the struggle between good and evil.”

Duration (noun): The length of time something lasts.

Mnemonic: “Duration” contains “dur,” like in “endure.” Think about how long you can endure something.
Context: “The duration of the movie was three hours.”

Deficit (noun): The amount by which something is too small.

Mnemonic: “Deficit” sounds like “deaf is it.” Imagine a hearing test showing a shortfall in hearing ability.
Context: “The company faced a deficit in their budget.”

Dividend (noun): A sum of money paid regularly to shareholders.

Mnemonic: “Dividend” sounds like “divide end.” Picture money being divided at the end of the year among investors.
Context: “She received a dividend from her stock investments.”

Deduction (noun): The action of subtracting something.

Mnemonic: “Deduction” sounds like “reduce-tion.” Think about reducing the total amount.
Context: “Tax deductions lowered her taxable income.”

Dues (noun): Fees or charges for membership.

Mnemonic: “Dues” sounds like “dues” in “duet.” Think of a club where members sing duets and pay fees.
Context: “He paid his membership dues at the beginning of the year.”

Hoax (noun): A trick or deception.

Mnemonic: “Hoax” sounds like “jokes.” Imagine an elaborate joke or prank.
Context: “The news of the alien invasion turned out to be a hoax.”

Innuendo (noun): An indirect or subtle reference.

Mnemonic: “Innuendo” sounds like “in-you-end-o.” Picture someone ending their sentence with an indirect hint.
Context: “Her comments were filled with innuendo.”

Insinuation (noun): An unpleasant hint or suggestion.

Mnemonic: “Insinuation” sounds like “in sin you wait shun.” Imagine someone hinting you to sin and then shunning you.
Context: “He made an insinuation about her integrity.”

Grudge (noun): A persistent feeling of ill will.

Mnemonic: “Grudge” sounds like “grudge” in “grudge match.” Picture a wrestling match where fighters hold a deep-seated ill will.
Context: “She held a grudge against him for years.”

Tenure (noun): The period during which someone holds a position.

Mnemonic: “Tenure” sounds like “ten your.” Imagine you holding a position for ten years.
Context: “During her tenure as CEO, the company grew significantly.”

Proximity (noun): Nearness in space, time, or relationship.

Mnemonic: “Proximity” sounds like “prox-immity.” Picture a proxima (nearby) star in astronomy.
Context: “The proximity of the school to her house was convenient.”

Surplus (noun): An amount that is more than what is needed.

Mnemonic: “Surplus” sounds like “sir-plus.” Picture a knight with more supplies than necessary.
Context: “The farm produced a surplus of vegetables.”


Ascension (昇進)

連想: 「登山 (ascend)」を連想。山を登ることで、上に行くこと。

Apex (頂点)

連想: 「エイペックス (Apex)」は「エース (Ace)」の最も高い位置を連想。

Archaeologist (考古学者)

連想: 「アーケード (Arcade)」の中に古いものがたくさんあるイメージ。

Craze (熱狂)

連想: 「クレイジー (Crazy)」に似ているので、狂ったように夢中になること。

Consignment (委託)

連想: 「コンサイン (Co-sign)」と連想し、契約書に共同で署名すること。
説明: 共同で署名して物を預けるイメージで、「委託」を覚えます。

Connotation (含意)

連想: 「コノーテーション (Connotation)」の「コン」と「ノート (Note)」。
説明: ノートに書かれている隠された意味や含意を考えることで、「含意」を覚えます。

Counterfeiter (偽造者)

連想: 「カウンター (Counter)」で偽のお金を渡す人。
説明: レジのカウンターで偽のお金を渡す人をイメージして、「偽造者」を覚えます。

Conveyance (運搬)

連想: 「コンベア (Conveyor)」を連想。物を運ぶベルトコンベア。
説明: ベルトコンベアで物を運ぶイメージで、「運搬」を覚えます。

Conglomerate (複合企業)

連想: 「コングロマリット (Conglomerate)」の「コン」と「グローバル (Global)」。
説明: グローバルに複数の企業が集まった複合企業をイメージして、「複合企業」を覚えます。

Durability (耐久性)

連想: 「デュラビリティ (Durability)」の「デュラ (Dura)」と「ビリティ (Ability)」。
説明: 長持ちする能力を持つものとして、「耐久性」を覚えます。

Fad (一時的な流行)

連想: 「ファッド (Fad)」と「ファスト (Fast)」を連想。
説明: すぐに過ぎ去る速い流行として、「一時的な流行」を覚えます。

Infusion (注入)

連想: 「インフュージョン (Infusion)」の「イン (In)」と「フューズ (Fuse)」。
説明: 中に注ぎ込むイメージで、「注入」を覚えます。

Intake (摂取)

連想: 「インテイク (Intake)」の「イン (In)」と「テイク (Take)」。
説明: 体内に取り込むイメージで、「摂取」を覚えます。

Offshoot (分派)

連想: 「オフシュート (Offshoot)」の「オフ (Off)」と「シュート (Shoot)」。
説明: 本体から飛び出して分かれるイメージで、「分派」を覚えます。

Zenith (絶頂)

連想: 「ゼニス (Zenith)」と「ゼウス (Zeus)」を連想。
説明: 天の頂点にいる神様ゼウスをイメージして、「絶頂」を覚えます。

Mill about (を動きまわる)

連想: 「ミル (Mill)」は「製粉機」を連想し、多くの穀物が製粉機の中でぐるぐる回る様子。
説明: 製粉機の中で穀物が絶えず動き回るイメージを持って、「を動きまわる」を覚えます。

Mark down (を値下げする)

連想: 「マーク (Mark)」は「記号」を、「ダウン (Down)」は「下げる」ことを連想。
説明: 商品の値段にマークを付けて下げるイメージを持って、「を値下げする」を覚えます。

Make a killing (大儲けする)

連想: 「キリング (Killing)」は「殺す」ことを連想し、大きな衝撃を与えるイメージ。
説明: 一度に大きな儲けを得ることが、人々に驚きや衝撃を与えるイメージとして、「大儲けする」を覚えます。

Make off with (を奪い去る)

連想: 「メイクオフ (Make off)」は「逃げる」を連想し、「ウィズ (With)」は「一緒に」。
説明: 何かを一緒に持って逃げるイメージを持って、「を奪い去る」を覚えます。


Ascension (昇進)political ascension (政治的昇進)
rapid ascension (急速な昇進)
ascension to power (権力への昇進)
Apex (頂点)the apex of a career (キャリアの頂点)
reached its apex (頂点に達した)
apex predator (頂点捕食者)
Archaeologist (考古学者)renowned archaeologist (有名な考古学者)
field archaeologist (フィールド考古学者)
archaeologist at a dig site (発掘現場の考古学者)
Craze (熱狂)latest craze (最新の流行)
fitness craze (フィットネスブーム)
craze for social media (ソーシャルメディアへの熱狂)
Consignment (委託)consignment store (委託販売店)
on consignment (委託販売で)
consignment of goods (商品の委託)
Connotation (含意)negative connotation (否定的な含意)
cultural connotation (文化的な含意)
emotional connotation (感情的な含意)
Counterfeiter (偽造者)notorious counterfeiter (悪名高い偽造者)
currency counterfeiter (通貨の偽造者)
arrest a counterfeiter (偽造者を逮捕する)
Conveyance (運搬)means of conveyance (運搬手段)
public conveyance (公共交通機関)
conveyance of goods (商品の運搬)
Conglomerate (複合企業)large conglomerate (大企業)
industrial conglomerate (産業複合企業)
media conglomerate (メディア複合企業)
Durability (耐久性)high durability (高い耐久性)
durability of materials (材料の耐久性)
test for durability (耐久性をテストする)
Fad (一時的な流行)passing fad (過ぎ去る流行)
diet fad (ダイエットの流行)
fashion fad (ファッションの流行)
Infusion (注入)herbal infusion (ハーブの注入)
infusion of capital (資本の注入)
infusion therapy (注入療法)
Intake (摂取)daily intake (日々の摂取)
calorie intake (カロリー摂取)
water intake (水分摂取)
Offshoot (分派)political offshoot (政治的分派)
offshoot of a company (会社の分派)
offshoot of a tree (木の分枝)
Zenith (絶頂)reach its zenith (絶頂に達する)
zenith of his career (彼のキャリアの絶頂)
astronomical zenith (天文の天頂)





In a small town known for its quiet charm, the audacity of a local artist shook the community. This artist had a unique affinity for creating intricate allegories through his paintings, often leaving viewers mesmerized and contemplative. Despite the brevity of his career, his works left a lasting impression, defying the duration that typically determined an artist’s legacy.

However, his rise to fame was not without its challenges. The town’s budget deficit often resulted in limited funding for the arts. Yet, the artist found a way to thrive, using his dividends from previous exhibitions to sustain his work. He was also meticulous in his tax deductions, ensuring that every penny was wisely spent to continue his craft.

Not everyone in the town appreciated his success. There were whispers and innuendos, often hinting that his achievements were the result of some elaborate hoax. Some even made insinuations that he harbored a grudge against those who doubted his talent. But the artist paid little heed to these rumors, focusing instead on his creative tenure and the proximity of his next big exhibition.

Interestingly, the artist’s story spread far beyond the town’s borders, becoming an allegory of resilience and creativity. As his fame grew, so did the surplus of admirers who found inspiration in his work. Through his journey, the artist taught the world that true talent and passion could overcome any obstacle, leaving a legacy that transcended time and place.







Audacity (●●●)

Affinity (●●●)

Allegory (●●●)

Duration (●●●)

Deficit (●●●)

Dividend (●●●)

Deduction (●●●)

Dues (●●●)

Hoax (●●●)

Innuendo (●●●)

Insinuation (●●●)

Grudge (●●●)

Tenure (●●●)

Proximity (●●●)

Surplus (●●●)

live down: ●●●

mark out: ●●●

muscle in on: ●●●

measure out: ●●●


The artist’s ●●● impressed everyone in the gallery.

She has an ●●● for classical music.

The novel is an ●●● of the author’s life.

The ●●● of the concert was two hours.

The city’s budget ●●● forced cuts in public services.

Shareholders received their annual ●●● last week.

Tax ●●●s can help reduce your taxable income.

Members must pay their annual ●●● by January.

The UFO sighting was revealed to be a ●●●.

The article was full of ●●●s about the politician’s past.

His speech was filled with ●●●s against his opponent.

He still holds a ●●● against his former boss.

During his ●●●, the company saw significant growth.

The ●●● of the school to his house is convenient.

The ●●● from the event will be donated to charity.


He hoped that over time he could ●●● down the embarrassing incident at the party.

The surveyors will ●●● out the boundaries of the new property.

The new competitor tried to ●●● in on our market share.

She carefully ●●●d out the ingredients for the cake.





Balance (残高)

Mnemonic Device: Picture a bank balance being balanced on a scale, where one side is money and the other is expenses.
Association: Balance your checkbook.
Contextual Usage: After checking his bank account, John was pleased with his remaining balance.


Mnemonic Device: Think of a “crying tier” where each tier or level has a specific criterion to move up.
Association: Criteria for a competition.
Contextual Usage: One important criterion for the job is excellent communication skills.


Mnemonic Device: Imagine “decorating a room” with proper manners and etiquette.
Association: Formal dinner decorum.
Contextual Usage: The ambassador was known for his strict adherence to decorum at international meetings.


Mnemonic Device: Picture a “dexterous” person playing the guitar with skillful hands.
Association: Dexter the skilled handyman.
Contextual Usage: Her dexterity with the sewing needle impressed everyone at the craft fair.


Mnemonic Device: Think of “duplicate” faces to represent deceit and double-dealing.
Association: Spy with duplicity.
Contextual Usage: The agent’s duplicity was revealed when he was found to be working for both sides.


Mnemonic Device: Visualize a pot of water “bubbling” over with excitement.
Association: A bubbling personality.
Contextual Usage: Her ebullience was contagious, lifting the spirits of everyone around her.


Mnemonic Device: Picture yourself on a thrilling “exhilarating” rollercoaster ride.
Association: The exhilaration of winning a race.
Contextual Usage: The exhilaration he felt after completing the marathon was indescribable.


Mnemonic Device: Think of a “spending tour” where you track all expenses.
Association: Monthly household expenditures.
Contextual Usage: The annual expenditure for the project exceeded the budget by 20%.


Mnemonic Device: Imagine a loyal “Fido” the dog, symbolizing faithfulness.
Association: Fidelity in a relationship.
Contextual Usage: The knight pledged his fidelity to the king, vowing to remain loyal.


Mnemonic Device: Picture a “doll” that never moves, representing laziness.
Association: Indolence during summer vacation.
Contextual Usage: His indolence was evident as he spent most days lounging on the couch.


Mnemonic Device: Think of “indiscreet” actions being shared indiscriminately.
Association: Indiscretion at a party.
Contextual Usage: His indiscretion at the company event led to a reprimand from his boss.


Mnemonic Device: Picture a “premium” gold star sticker representing high quality.
Association: Premium membership benefits.
Contextual Usage: Customers willing to pay a premium expect top-notch service.

Proceeds (収益)

Mnemonic Device: Visualize the “process” of money flowing in as proceeds from a sale.
Association: Charity event proceeds.
Contextual Usage: All proceeds from the concert will go to the children’s hospital.


Mnemonic Device: Think of a “utility belt” with essential tools for various tasks.
Association: Utility bills.
Contextual Usage: The utility of this multi-tool is incredible; it has a function for every need.


Mnemonic Device: Imagine measuring success with an actual “yardstick.”
Association: Yardstick for measuring performance.
Contextual Usage: The company’s financial performance is often used as a yardstick for the industry.


Audacity (大胆さ)

連想法: オーディション(audition)で大胆に自己アピールする。

Affinity (親近感)

連想法: フィン(fin)を持つ魚と泳ぐときの親近感。

Allegory (寓話)

連想法: 「アリゴリズム」(algorithm)が実は寓話のキャラクター。

Duration (期間)

連想法: ドラマのエピソードの長さ(duration)。

Deficit (赤字)

連想法: 「デブ(de)スーツ(suit)」でお金が赤字になる。

Dividend (配当)

連想法: 「ダイビング(diving)」で得た配当。

Deduction (控除)

連想法: 「デダクション(deduction)」で税金控除。

Dues (会費)

連想法: 「デュークス(dukes)」がクラブの会費を払う。

Hoax (悪ふざけ)

連想法: 「ホークス(hawks)」のいたずら電話。

Innuendo (暗示)

連想法: 「犬エンドウ(inu-endo)」が暗示する何か。

Insinuation (ほのめかし)

連想法: 「イン(in)」した後のささやき。

Grudge (恨み)

連想法: 「ガレージ(garage)」での恨み。

Tenure (在職期間)

連想法: 「テニス(tennis)」の選手の在職期間。

Proximity (近接)

連想法: プロの「シティ(city)」に近接している。

Surplus (余剰)

連想法: 「サプライズ(surprise)」の余剰分。

Live down (を人に忘れられる)

連想法: “down”(下)に行くと誰も見えなくなり、忘れられるイメージ。

Mark out (を区画する)

連想法: 「マーカー(marker)」でアウトラインを引いて区画する。

Muscle in on (に強引に入り込む)

連想法: 「マッスル(muscle)」で強引にドアを開けて入るイメージ。

Measure out (を量り分ける)

連想法: メジャー(measure)カップで量り分ける。


Audacity (大胆さ)Have the audacity to (〜する大胆さがある)
Show audacity (大胆さを見せる)
Incredible audacity (信じられない大胆さ)
Affinity (親近感)Feel an affinity for (〜に親近感を感じる)
Natural affinity (自然な親近感)
Cultural affinity (文化的な親近感)
Allegory (寓話)An allegory of (〜の寓話)
Use allegory (寓話を使う)
Political allegory (政治的な寓話)
Duration (期間)For the duration of (〜の期間)
Long duration (長い期間)
Duration of the event (イベントの期間)
Deficit (赤字)Budget deficit (予算赤字)
Trade deficit (貿易赤字)
Reduce the deficit (赤字を減らす)
Dividend (配当)Pay a dividend (配当を支払う)
Dividend yield (配当利回り)
Annual dividend (年間配当)
Deduction (控除)Tax deduction (税控除)
Make a deduction (控除を行う)
Deduction amount (控除額)
Dues (会費)Pay dues (会費を払う)
Membership dues (会員費)
Owe dues (会費を負う)
Hoax (悪ふざけ)Perpetrate a hoax (悪ふざけを仕掛ける)
Elaborate hoax (巧妙な悪ふざけ)
Hoax call (いたずら電話)
Innuendo (暗示)Make an innuendo (暗示をする)
Sexual innuendo (性的な暗示)
Veiled innuendo (ほのめかされた暗示)
Insinuation (ほのめかし)Make an insinuation (ほのめかしをする)
Subtle insinuation (微妙なほのめかし)
Unfounded insinuation (根拠のないほのめかし)
Grudge (恨み)Hold a grudge (恨みを抱く)
Long-standing grudge (長年の恨み)
Personal grudge (個人的な恨み)
Tenure (在職期間)Academic tenure (学術の在職期間)
Tenure track (テニュアトラック)
Secure tenure (在職期間を確保する)
Proximity (近接)Close proximity (近接)
Proximity to (〜への近接)
Geographic proximity (地理的な近接)
Surplus (余剰)Budget surplus (予算余剰)
Trade surplus (貿易余剰)
Surplus inventory (余剰在庫)